The project will run throughout September, and will include a community survey, focus groups, an online webinar and a series of in-person events.
Its findings will lead to a set of recommendations on how the airport can improve air quality.
Work is being undertaken by the Council for the Independent Scrutiny of Heathrow Airport (CISHA).
Baroness Liz Sugg, chair of CISHA, said: “I’ve had many conversations with residents about what it’s like living near one of the world’s busiest airports.
“One of the key issues that raised with us is concerns around air quality.”
“We will use the information gathered to make recommendations to the airport for their future work and investments on air quality.”
In-person events will be taking place at a range of venues, including Harlington, Harmondsworth, Hayes, Longford, Sipson, Cranford and Ealing Broadway, starting this Thursday (7) and running until September 23.